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Cost-effective and Green Synthesis of Tomatoes Derived Hierarchical Meso-Macroporous Carbon Nanospheres Aerogels for Glucose Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Biosensing and Bioenergy Harvesting from Real Samples on Flexible Substrate

Authors:Mimi Sun, Ming Zhou,*

In the last few years, various materials with nanostructures have been introduced as electrode materials to immobilize biocatalysts and therefore improve the performance of electrochemical biosensors [1] and biofuel cells (BFCs) [2]. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of tomatoes-derived hierarchical meso-macroporous carbon nanospheres aerogels (T-HMCNAs) using tomato as a low-cost and environmental benign material. By comparing the electrochemical performance of T-HMCNAs with that of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode material in this work, we reveal that T-HMCNAs is a favorable carbon electrode material for constructing glucose oxidase (GOD)-based electrochemical biosensor and BFC flexible substrate. The fabricated glucose biosensor functionalized with GOD, 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) and T-HMCNAs shows a satisfactory analytical performance. In addition, a compartment-less glucose/air BFC was also constructed, with the bioanode fabricated by co-immobilizing GOD, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and T-HMCNAs for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose and the biocathode assembled by bilirubin oxidase (BOD), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid ammonium salt) (ABTS) and ketjenblack (KB) for electrocatalytic reduction of O2. Such BFC can operate in the glucose solution with a remarkable performance. Meanwhile, this work realized the glucose detection and power generation with glucose as a biofuel from a range of real samples containing glucose (e.g., Sprite, Minute Maid, watermelon juice, and peach juice) on flexible substrate.

Electrostatic Induced, 3-Dimensional Spatial, Logic Sensation of Polyvinylidene Fluoride based Flexible Film

Authors:Yanlong Tai1*, Zujun Peng2*, Pu Huang3*, Xue Feng4#

New tactile sensing technologies have attracted more attention recently. Here, we demonstrated that the reduced graphene oxide/polyvinylidene fluoride (rGOPF) flexible film could effectively recognize, after triboelectrification, the 3- dimensional (3D) motions of human fingers with a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cover through the induced positive/negative or strong/weak potential responses. Results show that this electrostatic induced potential could be up to ~ 78 ±8 mV (touch mode) and ~ 30 ± 5 mV (touchless mode) under the defined conditions, respectively. A phenomenological scheme was proposed to explain these phenomena. It is based on the material microstructure and the classical theories of electrification and electrostatic induction, and confirmed via a series of experiments. To highlight the practical applications of this 3D-spatial sensing technique for human-finger electronics, two pairs of electrodes were integrated into an rGOPF flexible film to enhance its logic recognition capability from one axis to all directions. We illustrate its accurate recording capability for both Chinese character “中” and English letters “K-S-A” as a touchless, self-powered flexible writing panel. This sensing technique provides a new sensing experience that the present array sensors via a touch mode can’t offer.

The behavior of flexible interconnected lead under dynamic tensile conditions

Authors:Ruitao Tang, Haoran Fu, Tao Zhou, Ying Chen, Xue Feng*

Extensibility is very important for flexible electronic devices which depends on the structural of interconnected lead. It is necessary to study the structural response of flexible interconnected lead during dynamic stretching as skin electronic devices work in a dynamic environment rather than a static environment. In this work, the model of interconnected lead was established via finite element software, and the structure deformation forms of the lead under different tensile velocities were calculated by numerical simulation, and the stress and strain states of each part of the deformed lead were compared. The result reveals that the deformation forms vary from different tensile velocities, and the corresponding stress vulnerabilities are also different. The optimal design of interconnected lead for different service conditions can improve the measurement stability of flexible electronic devices with service life extension.

Neuromorphic perceptual devices toward artificial intelligence

Authors:Changjin Wan1*, Xiaodong Chen†

Authors are requested to submit an abstract of a maximum of two pages (including references and figures if you have). While submitting the abstract, please convert the docx-file into a PDF document.
Sensory neurons form an interface between the external physical reality and inner perception. This interface enables sensory information to be organized identified, and interpreted through perceptual learning—the process whereby the sensing abilities improve through experience.[1] Hardware representations that emulate the functionality and/or structuralism of the neural circuits would potentially address current unmet needs in software representations.[2, 3] Although most of the bioinspired hardware representations do not access data directly, biological systems collect, refine and process data from the real-world, while organizing, identifying, and interpreting information as abstractive perception.[4, 5] Here, a neuromorphic perceptual device that can integrate and differentiate the spatiotemporal features of sensory patterns for recognition is shown. The system comprises sensing, transmitting, and processing components that are parallel to those found in a sensory neuron. Bioinspired sensors convert physical stimuli into electric signals, which are transmitted to a synaptic transistor through interfacial ionic/electronic coupling via a soft ionic conductor. The integrated currents could differentiate the temporal interaction between the stimuli, which could be utilized for recognition. This work represents a step toward the design and use of neuromorphic electronic skin with artificial intelligence for future robotics and prosthetics.

A Flexible Skin-mounted Wireless Acoustic Device for Bowel Sounds Monitoring and Evaluation

Authors:Fengle Wang*, Xue Feng *

Conventional methods of intestinal inspection play an essential role in the assessment of the bowel disease and other relevant health issues, yet fail to obtain intestinal conditions in real time because of radiation limit and operation inconvenience. Here, a flexible skin-mounted device is developed for long-term, real-time monitoring and evaluation of bowel sounds by integration of a 3D-printed elastomeric resonator with flexible electronics (Figure 1). It is capable of being mechanically invisible attached to abdominal surface without performance degradation during breathing. Clinical tests conducted in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction or paralytic ileus and a normal subject illustrate utility in capturing the characteristics of bowel sounds. Furthermore, a demonstration of collecting and classifying bowel sounds by the flexible device based on machine learning methods serves as a reference for possible applications of the system in auxiliary diagnosis of bowel problems.

Solvent-free Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Strain and Pressure Sensor for detection of human motion

Authors:Jian Wang*, Ryuki Suzuki*, Takuto Nakamura*, Wei Weng*, Seimei Shiratori*

Flexible and wearable electronics have a huge potential application in human body signal monitoring1, human-computer interaction2 and electronic skin3, which has promoted the rapid development of flexible sensors. In this work, we proposed a solvent-free and low-cost strategy to prepare pressure and strain sensors based on graphene nanosheet cascade multilayer structure. The graphene nanosheets are directly attached to the PDMS surface by strong van der Waals forces, then assembled into a flexible sensor. Thanks to the graphene nanosheet cascade multilayer structure, the sensor has a detection limit of strain as low as 0.1% and the gauge factor (GF) can reach up to 55.2. In addition, the sensor also has an excellent pressure range as large as 700kPa. Compared to most of the reported graphene-based sensors, this work uses a novel manufacturing method without any chemical solvent involvement. Furthermore, the sensor not only has outstanding pressure sensitivity and wide response range, but also has excellent high strain sensitivity. Based on the convenience of preparation and the superiority of performance, the sensor can realize the signal of human body activity, speech recognition and handwriting recognition, demonstrating the huge application potential of the sensor in the wearable field.

Geometrical and Chemical Dependent Hydrolysis Mechanisms of Silicon Nanomembranes for Biodegradable Electronics

Authors:Liu Wang†♦, Yuan Gao§♦, Fanqi Dai†, Deying Kong†, Huachun Wang‡, Pengcheng Sun†, Zhao Shi‡, Xing Sheng‡, Baoxing Xu*§, Lan Yin*†

Biodegradable electronic device that physically disappears in physiological or environmental solutions is emerging for potentially widespread applications in healthcare management and environmental sustainability [1-8]. Precise modulation of the lifetime with on-demand expectation to constituent materials, however, remains a key challenge. For silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) that are the essential semiconductor component for high-performance biodegradable electronics at system level, in this work, we present a new mechanism of their hydrolysis behavior is presented (Figure 1) and a controlling strategy of Si NMs degradability by tuning surface charge density associated with dopant type and level is demonstrated. The experiments show a significant dependence of dissolution behavior on the surface charge status and dimensional size of Si NMs and mechanical stirring to solution environments. The presence of phosphates and potassium ions in solutions, lower dopant levels of p-type Si NMs or non- stirring environment will facilitate the degradation of Si NMs with higher dissolution rates and will also lead to a stronger size-dependent effect. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to reveal the ion adsorption mechanism of Si NMs with different surface charge densities and confirm the experimental observations. Tunable lifetime of the neural recording array based on Si NMs is achieved through geometry design. These results shed light on creation of new strategies to modulate the operational time frames of Si NMs and provide important baseline understanding for engineering high-performance biodegradable electronics.

Highly-nonlinear flexible threshold switch device for the selection of sensory arrays

Authors:Ming Wang*, Xiaodong Chen†

Electronic switches are essential building blocks for large-scale integration of high-performance electronic and optoelectronic components. The increasing need for healthcare, wearables, and soft robotics has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-terminal electronic switch with the bidirectional, nonlinear, and flexible characteristics. However, existing flexible electronic switch couldn’t fulfill these requirements due to their intrinsic rigidity or high temperature process. Here we report a high-nonlinear flexible electronic switch by utilizing that nano- contact effect induced threshold switching effect in elastic nanocomposite dielectric. The two- terminal electronic switch shows bidirectional switching characteristics with super-nonlinearity (1010), high ON-state current (500 μA), and robust mechanical flexibility. Further, a fully integrated flexible threshold electronic switch-based matrix backplane was successfully demonstrated for e-skin application. These results enable a new way to pursue high nonlinear, mechanically flexible, even stretchable electronic switch for large-scale integration of flexible electronic and optoelectronic system.

Effect of capillary bridge on interfacial adhesion of wearable electronics to epidermis

Authors:Qitao Wanga,b,c,Weitong Chena,b,c, Jian Wua,b,c †

Epidermal electronics, which is the next generation wearable electronics for the healthcare applications, provides the robust, noninvasive and long-lived interfaces with human body. The secretions of the body have significant effects on the adhesion of the wearable electronics to epidermis for the long-time wearing, where the different shapes of the capillary bridges form on the circular and thin rectangular sensors. The capillary bridge and fracture models are developed to study the profile evolution and capillary force of the sweat between the wearable electronics and skin. The sensor sizes of the wearable electronics have significant effects on the opening behaviors of the interface cracks due to the growth of the capillary bridge of sweat. There are different influences of the mechanical properties of the substrates on the penny and slender cracks. This study provides a useful framework to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the detaching of the wearable electronics due to sweat losing from body, which is very valuable to the wearable electronics mounted on the skin for the healthcare applications.

A liquid metal-based triboelectric nanogenerator as stretchable electronics for safeguarding and self-powered mechanosensing

Authors:Sheng Wang1, Yu Wang1*, Long X. Gong1*

The widespread impact kinetic energy always causes injury and property loss in daily life and few works have been reported to gather and exploit the kinetic energy[1-3]. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) proves to be a favorable device in harvesting mechanical energy but shows no protection property[4, 5]. It is urgent and meaningful to develop novel multifunctional TENG with self-powered mechanosensing and protection properties. In this report, a multifunctional TENG with energy-harvesting, safeguarding and self-powered force-sensing properties was fabricated by assembling shear stiffening gel/polydimethylsiloxane with GaInSn liquid metal. Operating at 10 Hz, TENG with 50×50×4 mm3 obtains an output voltage of 35.72 V and maximum power of 182.17 μW. In addition, the TENG device can generate enhanced output power of 323.97 μW under strain of 80%. Besides harvesting energy, TENG with fast stimuli-responsive character has been proven as a self-powered sensor to monitor varieties of physiological movements. More importantly, the TENG device enables to dissipate 66.43% of impact energy which provides protection effect. Correspondingly, the distinguished output voltage signals can also reveal and assess different impulsive loads. Thus, this functional TENG shows promising applications in energy-harvesting, safeguarding and self-powered mechanosensing areas.

Controlling the Sensitivity of Stretchable Strain Sensors with Thickness-Gradient Structure

Authors:Ting. Wang, Xiaodong. Chen*

Wearable strain sensors are necessary and demanded for cyber-physical systems in recent years, including personalized healthcare, human-machine interfaces, motion detection, soft robotics and other several potential applications. Development of wearable strain sensors with both high stretchability and sensitivity is required to meet such a wide range of activities for detecting large mechanical deformation and strain which are induced in the process of body motions. However, there is a trade-off between stretchability and sensitivity as the former requires intact structure which is related to ductility, while the latter requires abrupt structure change which is related to brittleness. Hence, There is a grand challenge to achieve strain sensors with both high sensitivity and large stretchability.
In this reasearch, a gradient-thickness thin film on elastic subtrate was proposed for stretchable strain sensors to solve this challenge. The gradient structure is expected to combine two contradictory properties. The rationality here is for crack-based stretchable strain sensors, thickness is a crucial parameter that can affect the crack propagation and morphologies. Large and wide cracks are easily formed in thick film with less stretchable but high sensitivity, while small and narrow microcracks are formed in thin film that are stretchable but less sensitivity. By introducing a thickness-gradient structure via thermal evaporation at tilted angles, we can obtain strain sensor that possessed gauge factor as high as 1665 at large stain ( ɛ =27%). The stretchable strain sensors with high sensitivity and large stretchability can satisfy the various demands for several potential applications such as being used for health monitoring for caring elderly, sports, rehabilitation, and motion detection.

Tactile Chemomechanical Transduction Based on Elastic Microstructured Array to Enhance the Sensitivity of Portable Biosensors

Authors:Ting Wang*, and Xiaodong Chen*

Tactile sensors capable of perceiving biophysical signals such as force, pressure, or strain have attracted extensive interests for versatile applications in electronic skin, non-invasive health care, and biomimetic prostheses. Despite these great achievements, they are yet incapable of detecting bio/chemical signals which provide even more meaningful and precise health information, due to the lack of efficient transduction principles. Herein, we propose a tactile chemomechanical transduction strategy that enables the tactile sensor to perceive bio/chemical signals. In this methodology, pyramidal tactile sensors were linked with biomarker-induced gas-producing reactions, which would transduce biomarker signals to electrical signals in real time. The method is advantageous as it enhances electrical signals by more than 10 fold based on a triple-step signal amplification strategy, as compared to traditional electrical biosensors. It also constitutes a portable and general platform capable of quantifying a wide spectrum of targets including carcinoembryonic antigen, interferon-
Such tactile chemomechanical transduction would greatly broaden the application of tactile sensors toward bio/chemical signals perception which can be used in ultrasensitive portable biosensors and chemical-responsive chemomechanical systems.

Unexpectedly High Piezoelectricity of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Membranes

Authors: Wenyu Wang a,b,1 , Yide Zheng a,b,1 , Xin Jin b,c,* , Yue Sun a,b , Binbin Lu a,b , Hongxia Wang d , Jian Fang d ,Hao Shao d , Tong Lin a,b,d,*

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its co-polymers are among the best piezoelectric polymer materials owing to the large piezoelectric coefficient and mechanical properties. Processing PVDF polymers into fibrous membranes through electrospinning can largely increase the piezoelectricity. In contrast, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), an amorphous polymer, is known to have a much lower piezoelectricity than PVDF. Herein, we report an unusually-high piezoelectric feature of electrospun PAN nanofiber membranes. When a small piece of PAN nanofiber nonwoven membrane (e.g. 5cm2) was subjected to compressive impact, it can generate up to 2.0V of voltage, the electrical outputs of which are even higher than that of PVDF nanofiber membranes at the same condition (Fig. 1). Such unexpected piezoelectric properties were found to originate from the high content of planar Sawtooth PAN conformation within nanofibers. Electric charges in PAN nanofibers also contributed to the energy conversion. The energy conversion capability can be further enhanced by increasing fiber orientation within fibrous membrane. Also, the working area and thickness of nanofibrous membranes as well as impact conditions influenced piezoelectric outputs. The energy generated is usable and can power commercial LEDs. These unexpected discovery may inspire to develop novel piezoelectric materials and devices.

A Flexible Electrochemical Sensor Based on Electric Double-Layer Capacitor

Authors:Name1 Xiaofeng Wang*, Name2 Jue Huang*, Name3 Keren Dai*

Flexibility is an indispensable attribute of ideal wearable devices, which can achieve a decrease in both volume and weight. Owing to its promising advantage, flexible electronics has been applied in many fields. However, constructing flexible sensors and a matching power supply is a key technology to be tackled when it comes to the measurement field.
In this study, we propose a novel electrochemical sensor (ES) based on electric double-layer capacitor that can serve as a shock sensor or tactile sensor. Our ES consists of several carbon electrodes in series, and each electrode has a porous structure to be saturated with electrolyte. Mixing Activated carbon uniformly with carbon black and rubber by ball milling at a ratio of 8:1:1, and then the mixture is rolled into sheets to make porous electrodes. As electron micrograph of a electrode film shows in Figure 1(a), numerous carbon pores are connected and supported by a rubber skeleton to form a porous structure.

Flexible active dual-parameter sensor for sensitive temperature and physiological signal monitoring via integrating thermoelectric and piezoelectric conversion

Authors:Yao Wang, Pengcheng Zhu, Ming Sheng, Yuan Deng

Flexible sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity to different external stimuli are highly desired in wearable electronics, especially those have more than one function. Here, we developed a flexible active dual-parameter sensor based on all organic piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) and thermoelectric polyanilline (PANI)-based composite films in a sandwiched structure, for sensitive temperature and physiological signal monitoring. Highly conductive PANI-based films working as electrodes resulted in higher electromechanical conversion than traditional metal electrodes. The functions of the device as physiological signals active sensor were examined via human motion, including elbow bending, pronunciation, and artery pulse. The integration of high performance thermoelectric PANI-based films enabled the device to sense ambient temperature with high sensitivity (45.5 μV/K) and quick response (1.2 s). More importantly, a series experiments proved that the device was capable of sensing temperature and tactile stimuli simultaneously without signal interference. Our work provided a promising prototype for active dual-parameter sensor, which has great potential in applications of wearable health-monitoring systems.

Flexible antenna with frequency adjustability based on piezoelectric film material

Authors:Zhijian Wang*, Jun Ai*, Ying Chen*, Xue Feng#, †

Flexible antennas can be short, small, light, thin, soft and multifrequency, wide used in various fields including medical, automobile, military and etc., with their frequency adjustability. Realizing continuously-adjustment working frequency and high gain are the hot spots in the field of flexible antennas. In this study, PVDF film was employed to be as flexible antenna’ s matrix material due to its characteristics of lightness, thinness, flexibility and adjustable dielectric properties by bending stress or bias electric field. The shape and parameters of flexible antenna were obtained by HFSS software simulation. The relationship between bending stress, bias electric field and dielectric constant was obtained via mechanical simulation and dielectric property test under the action of bias electric field. The flexible antenna was fabricated by screen printing technology. Through the simulation and measurement, the working frequency of the flexible antennas could be adjusted and the gain could be improved by controlling the bending deformation or bias electric field.

Semiconductor/conductor interface piezoresistive effect for pressure sensor with tunable sensitivity

Authors:Zhongwu Wang, Liqiang Li

Electronic skin is an emerging region of modern electronics. It’s no doubt that the tactile sensation is the key function of electronic skin, which mainly depends on pressure sensor to convert force stimuli into electrical signals. Among the various pressure sensors, piezoresistive pressure sensors, a kind of widely-investigated artificial device, generally consists of one or more kinds of conducting materials. Here, a novel highly sensitive pressure sensor based on semiconductor/conductor interface piezoresistive effect is successfully demonstrated by using organic transistor geometry [1,2]. Because of the efficient combination of piezoresistive effect and field-effect modulation in a single sensor, this pressure sensor shows multiple excellent performances such as high sensitivity (514 KPa-1), low limit of detection, short response and recovery time and robust stability. More importantly, the unique gate modulation effect in transistor endows the sensor an unparalleled ability—tunable sensitivity via bias conditions in a single sensor, which is of great significance for applications in a complex pressure environment. The novel working principle and high performance represent significant progress in the field of pressure sensors and electronic skin.

Self-destructing silicon nanomembrane based MOS capacitors with HfO2/Al2O3 bilayers

Authors:Zhuofan Wang*, Chen Liu* #, Yuming Zhang*, Hong-liang Lu* , Yimen Zhang*

Transient electronics have received growing attention and have huge potential for use in bioresorbable diagnostic/therapeutic devices and eco-resorbable consumer gadgets owing to their ability to partially or completely disintegrate or disappear at controlled rates. We have reported Si nanomembrane (NM) based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with high-k bilayers on biodegradable thin film substrates of gelatin-chitosan-poly(lactic- coglycolic acid) (Gel-CS-PLGA), which can be self-destructed in a controlled timescale in biofluids. Compared with other biodegradable polymers, the Gel-CS-PLGA substrates have better biocompability and ability to tailor the dissolution rate while maintaining excellent mechanical robustness. The major procedures are summarized in Fig. 1. The biodegradable substrates are designed to vanish in several hours when immersed in 96 °C phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The MOSCAPs with HfO2/Al2O3 bilayers initially show sharp capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves. However, the maximum capacitance obviously decrease and C-V characteristics tend to deteriorate during the first four hours immersion in 96 °C PBS solution. The device completely fails associated with dramatically increased leakage current at Vg=Vfb-1 V after eight hours as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The findings suggest a promising approach to adopt atomic-layer-deposited high-k bilayers in transient Si NM based electronics.

High-Adhesion Stretchable Electrode via Cross-Linking Intensified Electroless Deposition on Biomimetic Elastomeric Micropore Film

Authors:CY Wu*, T Zhang*, X Jun*, Y Qiu*

For the stretchable electrode, strong interface adhesion is the primary guarantee for long service life, and the maximization of tensile-limit with remarkable electrical stability can expand its usable scope. Here, a cost-effective strategy is proposed to fabricate a high-adhesion stretchable electrode. By modifying dopamine (DA) and functionalized silane on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate in sequence before electroless deposition (ELD) process, super-high adhesion up to 3.1 MPa is achieved between PDMS substrate and silver layer, and the electrode exhibits extraordinary conductivity of 4.0 × 107 S/m. This process is also suitable for other common flexible substrates and metals. Moreover, inspired by the micro/nano structure on the surface of lotus leaf, biomimetic elastomeric micropore film (BEMF) with uniform distributed micropore is fabricated by the one-step soft lithography replication process. The electrode exhibits large tensile-limit exceeding 70% uniaxial tensile and superior electrical stability from 6.3 Ω to 11.5 Ω under 20% uniaxial tensile for more than 10000 cycles. This study seeks a promising method to manufacture stretchable electrode with high-adhesion, large tensile-limit and excellent electrical stability, showing great potential to detecting various biological signals including joint movement, surface electromyography (sEMG), etc.

Electrospun SiOC nanofibers membrane as flexible pressure sensor for harsh environment applications

Authors:Nan Wu*, Yingde Wang

Due to the growing demands for functional flexible electronics devices and free-standing catalyst supports, inorganic fibers with excellent flexibility and high tensile strength have gained great research interests in recent years[1]. Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC), which consists of free carbon and SiOxC4-x units in a fractal network structure, has been widely studied due to its excellent thermal and mechanical properties[2]. SiOC systems with various compositions and structures have been explored and applied in many novel fields, such as sensors, high- temperature microelectromechanical systems and thermal insulators[3]. Herein, flexible SiOC nanofibrous membranes were fabricated by electrospinning and following heat-treatment process. The pressure sensing performance was thoroughly investigated.
As can be seen in Figure 1a, The size of the SiOC fibers are quite uniform with an average diameter of 550 nm. SiOC nanofiber membrane exhibited excellent flexibility. No cracks were observed under bending.
The pressure sensing measurement for SiOC nanofiber membrane was done in a home-made equipment as illustrated in the inset of Figure 1b. As shown in Figure 1b, SiOC nanofiber membrane demonstrated an excellent pressure sensing property even at 500°C. The sensor response of SiOC nanofibers was 150% at 500°C, suggesting SiOC nanofiber membrane promosing materials as pressure sensors for harsh environment applications.

Current page 5, Total 7 pages, 134 records
  • Abstract submission
    May 1, 2019
    Extended to May 10, 2019
  • Notification of acceptance
    May 10, 2019
    Extended to May 15, 2019
  • Early registration
    May 20, 2019
  • Registration payment
    June 20, 2019
    Extended to June 30, 2019
  • Exhibition payment
    June 30, 2019
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